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C# Interview Questions
In C#, both “struct” and “class” are used to define types that can have fields, properties, and methods. The main differences are:
– “struct” is a value type, while “class” is a reference type.
– “struct” does not support inheritance, but “class” does.
– “struct” is stored on the stack, while “class” instances are stored on the heap.
– A “struct” doesn’t have a default parameterless constructor, while a “class” does.
Garbage Collection (GC) is a mechanism provided by the .NET framework to automatically reclaim memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use. The GC operates on the heap and cleans up memory, ensuring that applications don’t leak memory over time.
“IEnumerable” and “IQueryable” are both interfaces for collections. The main differences are:
– “IEnumerable” is suitable for working with in-memory collections like arrays and lists.
– “IQueryable” is designed for querying data from out-of-memory sources, like databases. It allows LINQ queries to be translated into SQL for execution by the database.
The “using” statement in C# is used for two main purposes:
– To define a scope at the end of which an object will be disposed, particularly for objects that implement the “IDisposable” interface.
– To alias namespaces, which can be useful to resolve namespace conflicts.
Delegates are type-safe function pointers, while events are a way of encapsulating delegates. Events use delegates behind the scenes and provide a mechanism to offer a subscription model where multiple methods can subscribe to a single event.
Reflection is a feature in .NET that allows the inspection of metadata of assemblies, modules, and types at runtime. It can be used to dynamically create instances, access fields, methods, properties, and invoke them.
Exceptions in C# are handled using the “try”, “catch”, “finally”, and “throw” keywords. Code that might throw exceptions is placed inside a “try” block, and exceptions are caught in subsequent “catch” blocks. The “finally” block contains code that is always executed, whether an exception occurred or not.
Both “async/await” and “Task.Run” are used for asynchronous programming in C#. The main differences are:
– “async/await” provides a more declarative way to express asynchronous operations without explicitly managing the underlying thread.
– “Task.Run” is used to offload work to a ThreadPool thread, suitable for CPU-bound operations.
Dependency Injection (DI) is a design pattern that allows an object to receive its dependencies from outside, making systems more modular, testable, and maintainable. In .NET Core and .NET 5+, DI is integrated into the framework, allowing services to be registered and injected into classes.
– “virtual” is used to declare a method, property, indexer, or event that can be overridden in derived classes.
– “override” is used in a derived class to provide a new implementation for a method declared as “virtual” in a base class.
– “new” keyword hides the method from the base class, making it unrelated to the base class’s method of the same name.
Early binding refers to compile-time binding, where the method or property of an object is resolved at compile time. Late binding, on the other hand, occurs at runtime, typically using Reflection, and is useful when the type of the object isn’t known at compile time.
The “volatile” keyword indicates that a field can be modified by multiple threads simultaneously. It ensures that the most up-to-date value is present in the field at all times, preventing the compiler or the processor from caching the value for optimization purposes.
The “lock” keyword ensures that only one thread can enter a specific block of code at a time, preventing race conditions and ensuring thread safety. It’s used to synchronize access to a section of code that accesses shared data.
LINQ (Language Integrated Query) is a feature in C# that allows querying data directly within the language, irrespective of the data source. It provides a consistent model for working with data across various kinds of data sources and formats.
Attributes in C# provide a way to add metadata or declarative information to assemblies, modules, types, or members without using keywords. Attributes are classes that derive from the “System.Attribute” class. They can be retrieved at runtime using Reflection.